The Ipperwash Recommendations: First Nations in Ontario

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Chapter 4 – Settling Land Claims

  1. The governments of Ontario, Canada, and First Nations should jointly select the head of the Treaty Commission of Ontario – the Treaty Commissioner of Ontario. The selection process should be set out in the statute following discussions among the parties. The Treaty Commissioner should serve for a fixed but renewable term and should be removed only upon agreement by First Nations and the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. [Shared responsibility]

  2. Access to the Ontario land claims process should depend entirely on whether the documentation filed by the First Nation provides prime facie evidence that there has been a breach of the legal obligations of the Crown. [Shared responsibility]

  3. The federal government should cooperate fully with the provincial government and First Nations in Ontario to establish the Treaty Commission of Ontario and promote its effectiveness. [Shared responsibility]

Chapter 5 – Natural Resources

  1. The provincial government should continue to work with Aboriginal organizations in Ontario to develop co-management arrangements and resource-sharing initiatives. The provincial government should also provide financial or other support to Aboriginal organizations and third parties to develop capacity, identify best practices, and formulate strategies to promote co-management and resource-sharing. [Shared responsibility]
  2. The Ministry of Natural Resources and First Nations should work together to update and improve the Interim Enforcement Policy. This process should include discussions on how to evaluate and monitor the implementation of the policy and on how to improve the transparency and accountability of MNR enforcement activities. [Shared responsibility]

Chapter 9 – Policing Aboriginal Occupations

  1. Federal, provincial, municipal, and First Nation governments should actively promote public education and community information about significant Aboriginal protests. The OPP should also actively promote public education and community information. [Shared responsibility]
  2. The provincial government, First Nations organizations, the OPP, and other police services in Ontario should develop networks promoting communication, understanding, trust, and collaboration during Aboriginal occupations and protests. The following elements should be included in this effort:

a. The OPP and First Nations organizations in Ontario should develop public safety, communications, and/or operational protocols.

b. The OPP and First Nations police services should jointly plan for responding to Aboriginal occupations and protests. Existing protocols between the OPP and First Nation police services should be amended to include references to occupations and protests.

c. The provincial government, the OPP, and representatives from municipal police services should develop resources, practices, or protocols to assist municipal police services during Aboriginal occupations and protests in urban areas.

d. The OPP and the Ministry of Natural Resources should develop an operational protocol consistent with the purposes and practices in the OPP Framework for Police Preparedness for Aboriginal Critical Incidents.

e. The OPP should provide crisis negotiator training to First Nations police services. [Shared responsibility]

  1. Federal, provincial, and First Nation governments should commit to developing long-range plans for First Nation policing in Ontario. [Shared responsibility]
  2. Federal, provincial, and First Nation governments should commit to developing a secure legislative basis for First Nation police services in Ontario. [Shared responsibility]

Compiled by: Maynard “Sam” George and Monica Virtue (March 2008)

To view the original Final Report of the Ipperwash Inquiry please visit:


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